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Introduction to Primary Immunodeficiency Unit

. Last Updated: 13 October 2022Hits: 30398

Primary Immunodeficiency (PID) is a constellation of more than 250 diseases characterized by dysfunctional immune system. PID weakens the immune system, allowing repeated infections to occur. Many people with primary immunodeficiency are born with defects in the body's immune system, which leaves them more susceptible to germs that can cause infections. People with PID have the tendency to present with frequent and/or prolonged infections. Some forms of primary immunodeficiency are so mild that they may go unnoticed for years. Other types of primary immunodeficiency are severe enough that they are discovered almost as soon as an affected baby is born.

The Allergy and Immunology Research Centre (AIRC) has been providing laboratory tests for PID screening since the mid-1970s beginning with immunoglobulin quantification. The laboratory has a programme of assay development. The Centre is open to discussion regarding any test development that may arise according to current service need.

PID Screening Is Compulsory Before Requesting For Specialised Diagnostic Tests

  1. T- and B-cell enumeration (CD19/CD3/CD4/CD8/NK cells).
  2. Serum Immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE) and Serum Complement (C3 and C4).


Specialised Diagnostic Tests For PID

  • Dihydrorhodamine 123 test (screening for chronic granulomatous disease).
  • Detection of BTK protein (X-linked Agammaglobulinemia).
  • Detection of CGD (Chronic Granulomatous Disease) proteins.
  • Detection of WAS (Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome) protein.


PID screening and specialised diagnostic tests are appointment based tests. The physicians may need to contact this number (03-26162587) and speak to any of the PID officers for an appointment.

The PID request form and guideline can be downloaded from the Services drop down button>Specific request form.






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