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Soobitha Subenthiran, Noor Rain Abdullah, Joyce Pauline Joseph, Prem Kumar Muniandy, Boon Teck Mok, Chee Cheong Kee, Zakiah Ismail and Zahurin Mohamed (2013). Linkage Disequilibrium between Polymorphisms of ABCB1 and ABCC2 to Predict the Treatment Outcome of Malaysians with Complex Partial Seizures on Treatment with Carbamazepine Mono-Therapy at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital. PLoS ONE 8(5):e64827

Abstract :

Purpose: Carbamazepine (CBZ) is used as the first line of treatment of Complex Partial Seizures (CPS) in the Epilepsy Clinic, Neurology Department of Kuala Lumpur Hospital (KLH). More than 30% of the patients remain drug resistant to CBZ monotherapy. CBZ is transported by the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The P-gp encoded by the ABCB1 and ABCC2 genes are expressed in drug resistant patients with epilepsy. A few studies have shown significant association between CBZ resistant epilepsy and Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) with adjacent polymorphisms of these genes. Our study is aimed at determining the correlation between patients’ response to CBZ mono-therapy to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms G2677T and C3435T of the ABCB1 gene as well as G1249A and -24C>T of the ABCC2 gene.

Method: 314 patients with CPS were recruited from the Neurology Department of the KLH based on stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, of whom 152 were responders and the other 162 were non-responders. DNA was extracted from their blood samples and Taqman technology for allelic discrimination was performed. Results were described as genotype frequencies. The SHEsis analysis platform was used to calculate linkage disequilibrium index and infer haplotype frequencies. Haploview was used to do permutation test to obtain a corrected p-value.

Results: Resistance to treatment with CBZ mono-therapy was significantly associated with the 2677TT and the 3435TT genotypes while it was not significantly associated with the G1249A and -24C>T polymorphisms. The GCGC haplotype combination of the 2677G>T, 3435C>T, 1249G>A and -24C>T respectively was found to be extremely significant (p = 1.10e-20) with good drug response to CBZ mono-therapy.

Conclusion: Linkage disequilibrium between the 2677G>T, 3435C>T, 1249G>A and -24C>T SNPs may be used as a reliable screening marker to determine the treatment outcome of CBZ mono-therapy with CPS irrespective of race or gender.




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