[ English | Bahasa Malaysia ] Today is 26th May 2022, 06:30 AM (Last updated: 25th May 2022)

Text Red Text Black Text Blue Text Green Text Smaller Text Reset Text Larger

Publication Details
Year :


Journal :

Mohan Rao, Fairuz A Rashid, Fashihah S A H Sabri, Nur Nadia Jamil, Rozainanee Zain, Rohaidah Hashim, Fairuz Amran, Huey Tean Kok, Md Anuar Abd Samad, Norazah Ahmad. Comparing nasopharyngeal swab and early morning saliva for the identification of SARS-CoV-2. Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa1156, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1156

Abstract :

The ideal SARs-CoV-2 testing method would be accurate and also be patient-performed to reduce exposure to healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to compare patient-performed testing based on a morning saliva sample with the current standard testing method, healthcare worker-collected sampling via a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS).

This was a prospective single center study which recruited 217 asymptomatic adult male participants in a COVID-19 quarantine center who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 8-10 days prior isolation. Paired NPS and saliva specimens were collected and processed within 5 hours of sample collection. Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting Envelope (E) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes was performed and the results were compared.

Overall, 160 of the 217 (74%) participants tested positive for Covid-19 based on saliva, NPS, or both testing methods. The detection rate for SARS-CoV-2 was higher in saliva compared to NPS testing (93.1%, 149/160 vs 52.5%, 84/160, p<0.001). The concordance between the two tests was 45.6% (virus was detected in both saliva and NPS in 73/160), while 47.5% were discordant (87/160 tested positive for one while negative for the other). The Ct values for E and RdRp genes were significantly lower in saliva specimens compared to NP swab specimens.

Our findings demonstrate that saliva is a better alternative specimen for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Taking into consideration, the simplicity of specimen collection, shortage of PPE and the transmissibility of the virus, saliva could enable self-collection for an accurate SARS-CoV-2 surveillance testing.




This site is best viewed on Firefox (24.0) with resolution higher than 1280 x 768 pixels.

Our Location


Located at Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. We operate from 8.00am - 5.00pm Monday - Friday. Click on the map image to launch Google Maps service.

Get in touch with us